A. Research approaches to aging:
a) longitudinal studies (przed3u?one)
b) cross - sectional studies
B. Perspectives on aging
The strategy to minimize the impact of losses ( biological aging ). Margaret Bolets and Paull Bolets called that strategy selective optimisation with compensation. + Selective = people scale down the number of their activities. + To optimize = exercising themselves in areas og high priority of conserving energy to compensate through an alternative (another) type which is suitable.
C. The changes of aging
Elderly people are more suspectable to diseases.
D. Physicological changes (3):
1) vision - physical changes in the eye curtail the amount of light that reaches the retina = loss of visual ability.
2) hearing - hearing loss often develops, particularly for high tones. Thus, the absolute threshold rises for visual and aural stimuli.
3) sexual functioning dicreasing
E. Cognitive changes: loss of cognitive abilities
1) memory - Information is assimilated more slowly from sensory memory so that more information decays before it can be processed. Older people can hold as much information, in short - term memory as younger peopledo , but when they must recognize the information, they perform less well than younger adults. In addition, short - time memory among the elderly is generally hindered by tasks that require a division of attention, although they allocate attention well to practiced tasks. Long - time memory remains strong for material that has been thoroughly learned, although older adults do worse than younger adults when given a specified amount of time for learning.
F. Social changes
Elderly people are less socially active.