A. Erikson's first four stages.
Erik Erikson, an ego psychologist, conceives of personality in psychosocial terms and sees personality development as a lifelong process through eight stages.
According to Ericson a child develops a basic sense of trust during what Freud called the oral period, autonomy during the anal period, and initiative during what Freud called the phallic period. Failure to meet the development tasks of these period leads, respectively to mistrust, shame and doubt, and guilt.
1. Oral - Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Anal - Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt
3. Genital - Initiative vs. Guilt
However, Erikson does not adhere to the Freudian belief that personality in unalterably determined in the initial years of life. He sees personality as continuing to develop through the life --- placing equal emphasis on the child's efforts to master the skills valued by society, on the adolescent's striving to achieve a sense of identity in that society, on the young adults' quest for intimacy, and on the mature person's desire to guide younger generations and thus --- to society: depending on how an individual person negotiates these challenges, old age --- bring a sense of integrity or despair.
4. Latency - Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Puberty and Adolescence - Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Young Adulthood - Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Adulthood - Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Maturity - Ego Integrity vs. Despair.
B. Attachment and Imprinting
Autor: Jakub Drybs