1)Three key components of Piaget's approach to cognitive development.
a. schemes - sucking, looking, grasping and pushing.
Babies begin life unable to distinguish between their own bodies and things in the world around them. They have no understanding of the objects (and people) that make up their world, nor do they have any idea of how their own actions affect those objects. But they soon start to acquire this knowledge through a process exploration and experimentation in which they use recurrent action patterns. These action patterns, which Piaget called schems, include such actions as grasping, sucking or throwing. They are the infant's form of ---
and they contain organised repeated elements that the infant can generalise to other situations. A baby girl learns, e.g., that she can grasp a toy, suck and lift it in her hand, but that a wall cannot be grasped. As the children grow older, their schemes are internalised, and they can carry them out mentally.
b. assimilation & c. accommodation
According to Piaget, children's thinking is at first isolated into separate schemes. But it becomes increasingly organised, so that related behaviour or thought is clustered into systems. The schems of grasping and looking become co-ordinated, e.g. so that the baby can do both at the same time. as this process continues, the child's thinking steadily becomes more adaptive. The adaptation involves two processes: assimilation & accommodation. # Through assimilation, the child incorporates new information into old ways of thinking or behaving. It's a process when the NEW is changed to fit the KNOWN. Assimilation adds to what exist already in the schemes of child activities, connecting the presence with the past. # Through accommodation, the child either modifies old ways of thinking and behaving, or learns new ways that allow him or her to adopt to new objects in the world. The KNOWN is changed to fit the NEW. It reconstructs or modifies the child existing schemes, so that the new information can fit better.
Four qualitatively different stages of cognitive growth.
Piaget proposed four increasingly complex stages that children always reach in the same order. Whatever labels are attached to them, these periods closely correspond to infancy, the pre-school years, later childhood, and adolescence. + Through most of the sensorimotor period, which encompasses the first two years of life, infants rely on action schemes. + After they internalise these schemes, children move into the preoperational period which covers the pre-school years. This period is characterised by development of language and elaborate symbolic play; the children can think, but their thought often proceeds in a seemingly illogical way. + The concrete - operational period begins to appear about the time children start school. This period is characterised by logical thought, but only in regard to concrete objects. + The formal - operational period begins around adolescence; this period may continue to develop throughout adulthood, and it represents the culmination of cognitive development. Formal operational thought is characterised by abstract, hypothetical reasoning, including the ability to assume artificial premises that are know to be false.
Autor: Jakub Drybs