Events in Scotland made Charles depend on Parliament, but events in Ireland resulted in civil war. James I has continued Elizabeth's policy.
The catholic Irish were sent off the land and those who had worked for Protestant settlers, were replaced by Protestant workers from Scotland and England. In 1641 Ireland exploded in rebellion against the Protestant English and Scottish settlers. In London Charles and Parliament quarrelled over who should control an army to defeat the rebels. Some thought he only wanted to raise army, but it wasn't so. Charles's friendship towards the Catholic Church increased Protestant fears. Some of the Irish rebels claimed to be rebelling against the English Protestant Parliament, but not against the king. Charles moved to Nottingham. There he gathered the army to defeat MPs who opposed him. The Civil War had started. Most people didn't wish to be on one or the other side. "Cavaliers" controlled most of the north and west. Parliament army consisted of armed groups of London apprentices. It was certain that Parliament would win in the end. It was supported by navy, merchants and people from London. It controlled most important national and international sources of wealth. Royalists had no money and soldiers. In 1645 they were finally defeated. The war had ended. Parliament introduced new taxes to pay for war. People had had enough of uncontrolled soldiers and paying the cost of the war.
What was Dail?
Before the beginning I World War the British government had agreed to home rule for Ireland. It was agraid that Protestants in the north would start a civil war in Ulster if home rule was introduced. But in 1914 when war began, the government delayed the introduction of home rule and called on the Irishmen to join the army. Some of them supported England. But a lot of Irishmen didn't see why they should fight for British, who treated them very badly. They wanted full independence. At Easter 1916, these republicans rebelled in Dublin. "The Easter Rising" was put down. The British executed its leaders. In 1918 elections the republicans won in almost every area except Ulster. They met in their own parliament, the Dail in Dublin and announced Ireland as a republic. In 1921 British government agreed to the independence of Southern Ireland, but Northern Ireland (Ulster) remained united with Britain.
It was Puritanism that led to formulation of Levellers. They appeared under Oliver Cromwell. This group wanted equality among all men. They wanted Parliament to meet every 2 years, and for most men over the age of 21 to have the right to elect MPs to it. They also wanted complete religious freedom, which would allow many new Puritan groups to follow their religion in the way they wished. Revellers in the army rebelled, bet they were defeated. "Levellers" was one of Neocomformist sects. It lasted only a few years, but it brought hope to many of the poor and powerless. Levellers demand were thought of as basic citizens' rights. But in the middle of 17th cent. They had little popular support. Neocomformists were disliked by the ruling class until the end of the 19th century.
The reign of William and Mary
William of Orange became a king by Parliament's election, not by right of birth. He was a Protestant ruler of Holland. He was invited by the Whigs, Protestants and Anglicans to invade Britain. It was dangerous for him, but he already was in war with France, so he needed British help and armed forces. William entered London. He said would leave Britain unless he also became king. Parliament offered him and Mary the crown. While William had obtained the crown, Parliament had decided that James II had lost his right to the crown. When there was a Glorious Revolution, Parliament made William king. King William landed in Ireland in 1690 and defeated James's army at the River Boyne. With this battle the Protestant victory was completed. At the end of the century Britain went to war against France. This was partly because William of Orange brought Britain into the Dutch struggle with the French. But Britain wanted also to limit the French power. James's II defeat by William of Orange in 1690 had severe and long-term effects on the Irish people. By 1770s, life become easier and some laws against Catholics were removed. In Ulster the Northern Protestants formed the first "Orange Lodges", societies, which were against any freedom for the Catholics. He went to Holland in 1693 and commanded the Dutch army. The peace of Ryswick was William's greatest diplomatic achievement.
Mary, the queen of England. Mary was a Protestant married to William of Orange. The crown was offered only to Mary, but at last the Parliament offered it to both William and Mary. She was brought up as Protestant and married to her cousin. 11 years later she ascended the throne the throne of England after the revolution of 1688. Though William was charged with neglecting her, Mary seems to have been devoted to her husband. She was very popular in England.